The fall of the socialist regimes in Eastern Europe and the dissolution of the USSR, in the last decade of the twentieth century, reactivated the Black Sea Region and Central Asia on the world scene. The two regions attracted the attention of the international community as potential zones of instability (Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Armenia, Afghanistan etc.), but also as sources (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan etc.) and transit regions for energy resources. Both regions present important stakes for the Russian Federation and the US, but also for international organizations such as NATO and the EU. Currently, the connections and the improvement of relations between the Black Sea Region and Central Asia are due to the pipeline projects towards Central and Eastern Europe (South Stream, Nabucco) and to the TRACECA Program, which aims to restore the historical Silk Road.
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