Saddaf SULTAANA, PhD
Abstract. Since last few decades, Pakistan defence industry entered into a new phase of development. Pakistan showed a great advancement in manufacturing and developing weapons and military technologies. This has reduced Pakistan’s reliance on importing arms, and therefore in the past few years Pakistan has reduced dependency on importing arms to some extent. The increased potential in manufacturing sector has enabled Pakistan to upgrade its defence production facilities and thus focusing more on exporting its defence products. Pakistan’s abilities to produce modern weaponry have earned it international quality certification thus making it a competitor in the global arms industry besides making it a key regional player. This provides an opportunity for the European Union and Pakistan to improve bilateral relationship and collaboration in research and manufacturing defence technologies.
Key words: Pakistan’s Defence Industries, National Security, Pakistan’s Defence Exports, POF, HIT, PAC, KSEW, DEPO, IDEAS
In the past two decades, the defence manufacturing sectors of Pakistan has transformed into well-established industry. Resultantly, Pakistan’s defence industry has significantly developed the potential to export defence equipment in international market. Currently, there are over 20 major public sector units and almost 145 private sector firms are engaged in the manufacturing and development of defence related products.1 The defence export is gradually increasing and Pakistan has found markets in number of Asian and Middle Eastern states. In 2018, the defence export of Pakistan was about $ 300 million2.
Since the end of Cold-War, the defence industry has undergone profound transformations. After WW-II, most of the countries had developed the idea that a major feature of security policy was the Defence Industrial Base (DBI); therefore, they decided to maintain their own defence industries that are constantly ready to respond to threat.3 This resulted in changes in demand for military weapons and equipment, distribution of resources for national security, national / international security priorities by major states, which have rigorously influenced the defence industry of different states. Consequently, a massive military build-up was observed during the Cold-War by some advanced states and military industry emerged as an extremely profitable sector contributing towards national economy.4 But this scenario was changed in the post-Cold War period as the demand for military equipment decreased and the defence industry got curtailed significantly.5 According to Congressional Research Service (CRS) Report, there was continuous decline in domestic defense spending in many countries and it created apprehensions within the weapons manufacturing industries. The defence industries of major countries such as United States, Russia, Israel, South Africa, Brazil and India etc. were also affected during this period.6
This dramatic decline in military spending and the downfall of defense industries ended in 1998-99, and an upward trend in military expenditures became obviously visible. Not only the United States, but several other states in other regions like Middle East, South Asia and East Asia increased their military spending. Moreover, the terrorist attacks in the United States on 9/11 resulted in the renewed development and advancement of defence industries because of its significant impact on security needs at national / international levels.7 In the twenty-first century, global defence industry entered a renewed phase, which resulted in increased demand for smart weapons, advanced military technologies and investment in Research & Development. Even more pronounced effects were witnessed in the fields of aerospace and cutting edge technology products, which as a consequence resulted in monumental growth of the Military Industrial Complex and enhanced activities within the defence industries.
These changing trends in global defence industry have also influenced Pakistan in several ways. The defence industry of Pakistan has witnessed significant changes since the end of Cold-War. This paper thoroughly explores the evolution and develop-ment of Pakistan’s defence industry alongside examining the defence production facilities and their role in enhancing the Pakistan’s export potentials.
PAKISTAN’S DEFENCE INDUSTRY: EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT
Pakistan’s defence industry has come a long way from being zilch to a stage where it can boast for designing and developing a wide range of advanced weapons systems. During the colonial rule, in the sub-continent, the British Empire established sixteen ordinance factories prior to World War-II to meet the needs of arms and ammunition against the perceived strategic threat from hostile empires and alliances. After the partition of sub-continent in 1947, which resulted in creation of India and Pakistan, India got all those sixteen industrial units as none of them were located in Pakistan. Therefore, the newly emerged state of Pakistan possessed disorganized structure of armed forces with rudimentary defence capabilities, headed by three British Chiefs for its respective tri-services. Pakistan lacked the infrastructure for development of weapons, equipment and ammunition critically needed to maintain the defence forces and meeting the security challenges to its territorial integrity.8 In such dire circumstances, Pakistan faced a major security threat – the Indian hostility coupled with the occupation of two-thirds of the princely State of Jammu and Kashmir in 1947.9
Hence, to accomplish its security needs, the defence industry of Pakistan started its production activities in early 1950’s by establishing production facilities for small arms and its ammunition. Since then, the development in technology and resources, as well as the progress in the defence and aviation sector, has considerably increased to an extent that public and private institutions can proficiently fulfill the requirements of Pakistan Defence Forces. Due to the advancement in defence sector, now there are almost 20 Public Sector Organizations and 100 Private Firms collaborating to jointly manufacture several defence products and technologies. These products have been accredited globally because of the quality, reliability and competitive prices in the international markets. According to Defence Export Promotion Organization (DEPO):
“The Private firms have achieved an accelerated development in the manufacturing capabilities, facilities and capacities to augment Public Sector for indigenous production, using the latest technological tools. Both, the Public and Private Firms, are abreast of the need and meeting the landmarks with full zeal and enthusiasm”.10
This illustrates that Pakistan’s defence industry is geared up to diversify its range of products, which include modern weapon systems, including tanks, small trainer aircraft, fighter aircraft and small arms in addition to defence technologies critically needed for counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations. Pakistan’s defence sector is gradually claiming its space in the national as well as global market to sell its products.
ADVANCEMENT IN ARMS INDUSTRY: FROM PRODUCTION TO EXPORT
As Pakistan didn’t inherit any military production facility after independence, its armed forces were mostly reliant on purchases from other states, especially the United States and United Kingdom. Due to limited economic resources and lack of foreign exchange, Pakistan found itself handicapped to develop its own defence infrastructure through industrialization and research. Gradually Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) was established in 1951 at Wah, which started manufacturing small arms and their ammunition. However, after the induction of American weapon systems, the POF had to cater for the production of ammunition for the American related weapons as well. The suspension of military assistance and arms embargoes during the 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pakistan wars was the first setback which carried an important lesson for Pakistan to strive for attaining self-reliance in production of the military hardware.11
Subsequent sanctions imposed by the U.S. and West after the end of Cold War resulted in increased asymmetries between Indian and Pakistani force structures and left Pakistan in an extremely disadvantageous position vis-à-vis India, a five times larger adversary. This vulnerability further strengthened the resolve within Pakistan military to explore the option of self-reliance and establish itself as manufacturer of the defence technology not only to meet its domestic needs, but also to earn revenues through exports.12 Hence, to meet the requirements of production through indigenization and self-sufficiency, Defence Production Division was established in 1972, which was later re-designated as Ministry of Defence Production (MODP) in 2004.13 Some of the major defence production facilities established after POF include Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) Kamra and Defence Export Promotion Organization (DEPO) etc. It would be pertinent to take a closer look at the Pakistan’s defence production facilities.
Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF)
Established in 1951, Pakistan Ordnance Factories is the largest state owned defence industrial complex and military corporation functioning under the Ministry of Defense Production. Currently, POF comprises of 14 ordnance factories and three commercial subsidiaries. Meeting the international standards, POF is producing a wide range of conventional arms and their ammunitions. The precision and reliability of its weapons have led to the creation of growing demand for POF manufactured arms and ammunition in international market. The POF clients are spread over 40 countries in different continents including Europe, Asia, Africa, Middle East and the Americas. POF’s products are manufactured under international quality control standards and certifications, and include infantry weapons, small arms ammunitions, artillery ammunitions, aircraft and anti-aircraft ammunition, anti-aircraft gun, rockets, tank ammunition, anti-tank shells etc.14
During the Internal Defense Exhibition and Conference (IDEX), held in 2017 at Abu Dhabi, the Chairman of the POF, Lieutenant General Omar Mahmood Hayat, highlighted that Gulf States imports comprises of almost half of arms and ammunition manufactured by the POF. He said:
“We manufacture weapons and equipment, which have been extensively used by Pakistan armed forces during the war against terrorism. In the last three years, our production has seen a 100 percent jump and in the last two years, our export and commercial sales have seen 300 percent jump. I don’t think there is any parallel to this in any part of the world”.15
In the fiscal year 2015-2016, POF secured sales amounting to $93.7 million and in partnership with the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC), POF struck a deal in 2015 to sell sixteen JF-17/FC-1 aircraft to Myanmar.16 In 2016, Nigeria signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the purchase of JF-17 and the deal was concluded in October 2018. Pakistan’s Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) approved a deal of selling three JF-17 aircraft to Nigeria amounting to $184 million.17 Saudi Arabia happens to be the largest buyer of arms and ammunition from POF and had placed export order worth $81 million in 2016. Saudi Arabia has also purchased small and medium conventional weapons worth million dollars in last several years.18
During the annual defence Expo, IDEAS-2016, POF signed Letters of Understanding (LoUs) with four international corporations including, an Italian firm Fiocchi, a Polish firm Polska Grupa and two Czech Republic corporations named Czechoslovak Group and Ceska Zbrojovka, for the export of arms, ammunition, technology transfer, technical training of manpower and joint production.19 These contracts remarkably increased Pakistan’s annual defence export figures. According to Bloomberg Pakistan has set a target of ramping up its defence exports to $1 billion mark, and the export countries may include Egypt, Nigeria and Turkey.20 Along with these states, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Sri Lanka have also shown interest in purchasing equipment from Pakistan.
Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT)
The Heavy Industries Taxila, a major military corporation and defence production industry, was founded in 1971 which started its production in 1980. For the last four decades, HIT has emerged as one of the principal units engaged in manufacturing, production and rebuilding of the hi-tech equipment such as tanks, Armored Personnel Carriers (APC), Guns and other defence / security related equipment. HIT is focusing on the quality assurance and absorption of modern technology through innovation and robust R&D process. The motto of HIT says “Strength through Self-Reliance”. Currently, the HIT consists of six production entities / units, which includes an internal development and component manufacturing facility and a leading R&D center.21
Pakistan has been exporting HIT Al-Khalid MBT, and to maintain the sales momentum, HIT has also started manufacturing export quality APCs. In 2003, HIT further expanded its developmental capacity by starting the commercial production of Al-Zarar tanks for exporting to other countries, after requisite up-gradation of the tank as per the modern warfare.22 In 2018, Bahrain signed a historic and landmark deal with HIT for purchase of light armored vehicles called ‘Interceptor’. Bahrain National Guards would be equipped with the armored vehicle primarily for and internal security and riots control.23
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC)
Owned by Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex was established in 1971 as an Aircraft Rebuild Factory (ARF) with the collaboration of China. The ARF was designed to overhaul the F-6 aircraft, A-5, FT-5, Y-12, K-8 and F-7 aircraft and their variants.24 In 1974, the complex was added with an additional overhauling complex, called as Mirage Rebuild Factory (MRF). It was meant for upgrading and overhauling the Mirage aircraft on PAF’s inventory. In 1975, a joint project with the assistance of Sweden was launched, aimed at manufacturing the trainer aircraft named Mushshak. The facility was named as Aircraft Manufacturing Facility (AMF). In 1983, the PAF established Avionics Production Facility, and the complex was subsequently named as Pakistan Aeronautical Complex. PAC designs, develops, and build aircrafts and avionics systems in addition to producing the Aerial systems for both military and civilian aircraft. The PAC journey started from the manufacturing of Karakoram-8 and achieved milestone of manufacturing, initially Mushshak, and later Super Mushshak aircraft.
PAC holds several quality certifications including ISO 9001-2008, ISO 17025, AS9100C, International Aerospace Standard AS9100 Rev C, A Type certification from Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority and Type Acceptance Certificate from the South African Civil Aviation Authority, Boeing Quality Management System (BQMS) approval and NADCAP accreditation by Performance Review Institute (PRI) US etc.25 Presently, PAC also possesses advanced technologies to design and manufacture multi-role JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft. PAC also possesses the capability to carryout advancement in the avionics, especially for the up-gradation of fighter aircraft, besides supporting high-tech defence and civil aviation systems.26
In 2017, Turkish Undersecretary for Defense Industries (SSM) awarded a contract to PAC for the purchase of 52 MFI-395 Super Mushshak military training aircraft. So far this has been the PAC’s largest export deal that was concluded in Istanbul on the eve of International Defense Industry Fair. This deal also made Turkey as Pakistan’s major trading partner in defence and aviation. Till now, PAC has manufactured and exported more than 80 Mushshak aircraft since 2014, and several others remain in the final stage of completion for export to the designated countries.27 Moreover, several other countries like Argentina, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Nigeria, Philippines, Venezuela and Zimbabwe etc. have expressed interest in JF-17 fighter jet, manufactured at PAC in cooperation with the Chinese Chengdu Aerospace Corporation (CAC).28
Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works Limited (KSEW)
KSEW was established in 1957 as a project of Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC). It has played a significant role in transfer of technologies from developed countries for expanding the industrial base of naval engineering and manufacturing capabilities. KSEW is the only Heavy Engineering industry of Pakistan that is engaged in ship building, repairing and major engineering projects related to ship building. Since establishment, KSEW has manufactured 448 ships, marine crafts of different types and sizes, FRP boats, Bollard Pull Tugs, F22P Frigates, Fast Attack Crafts, Small Tanker and Utility Ships, Harbor Utility Vessels, Missile Crafts, Coastal Oil Tankers, Midget Submarines and multipurpose barges.29 KSEW is well equipped to build several types of ships up to 26,000 TDW (Tons Dead Weight) besides constructing large vessels for cargo ships, oil tankers, bulk carriers & warships, marine crafts – including tugs, barges, ferries, fishing trawlers and dredgers. KSEW has the facilities to produce extensive heavy engineering products like heavy steel structures, pressure vessels, LPG storage tanks, industrial boilers and overhead and portal cranes. During 2008-09, KSEW underwent extensive advancement in order to undertake the construction of F 22P frigate with help from China. F-22 frigate has enhanced KS&EW capability to compete with international competitor in shipbuilding industry.30
In the past few years, KSEW has progressed towards self-reliance and indigenization in the field of maritime defence. In July 2018, KSEW signed an agreement for manufacturing four Milgem/Ada-class corvettes with the joint collaboration of Turkish Shipyard M/s ASFAT A.S. According to the deal, four ships will be built, two in Istanbul Naval Shipyard and the other two in Pakistan by KSEW, as part of the technology transfer package.31 KSEW also signed an agreement during IDEAS-2018, with the U.S. based ship manufacturing company for joint collaboration and co-production of steel, Aluminum and hull boards for Navy, fisheries and commercial sector. Pakistan is also trying to reinstate old warships as well as to boost its conventional naval capabilities vis-à-vis India. This may be done by safeguarding its maritime economy and trade links. Moreover, the ongoing projects of KSEW includes: 17,000 Tons Fleet Tanker, Fast Attack Craft (Missile), Maritime Patrol Vessels, 32 Tons Bollard Pull Tugs and Bridge Erection Boats.32 These ventures will help KSEW to increase its naval production capabilities and credibility in the international market.
Defence Export Promotion Organization (DEPO)
The Defence Export Promotion Organization is an organization responsible for promoting Pakistan’s defence industry. DEPO is also facilitating and promoting exports of defence products in coordination with the manufacturing sector at regional and global levels. DEPO is also responsible to meet the demands of Pakistan Armed Forces, which are accomplished through a wide array of defence production industries, R&D in collaboration with the public and private sector. With each passing year, DEPO and Pakistan’s defence manufacturing sector is becoming proficient in meeting the requirements of international clientele in areas of medium and high end technologies.33
Currently, Pakistan has the potential to develop and manufacture high-end weapon systems such as Main Battle Tanks (MBTs), basic and advance trainer aircraft, fighter jets, rockets, anti-tank missile systems, sophisticated surface and sub–surface naval vessels, air delivered armaments, state-of-the-art secure communication system, small arms and a variety of ammunition / explosives. All these products are manufactured under the ISO certification, aerospace standards of latest revised version (AS9100)34 and R&D organizations, which are continually monitoring the quality assurance and product improvement. DEPO continues to modernize its defence production capabilities via innovative and cost effective technologies to fulfill the changing requirements of its customers. Pakistani defense products have now become internationally competitive which has enabled the government to evaluate the feasibility of exporting the defense products as a path for the economic development.35
DEPO’s collaboration with Pakistan’s manufacturing sectors is not only intended at coping with the defence needs of Pakistan domestically, but is also aimed at meeting demands of international buyers as well. Thus it faces the challenge of competing with the other international manufacturers keeping in view the technical needs and standards of present while focusing on the future. From the past three to four years, Pakistan has diversified its traditional and non-traditional export potentials and has started to explore new markets to boost its markets across different regions for defence products.36 Addressing the members of Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) on February 2, 2016, the former Director General of DEPO, Major General Agha Masood Akram, stated that:
“Defence production industry of Pakistan has made momentous techno-logical and innovative advancement, enabling it to focus on the export of defence products. Pakistan has not only the ability to fulfill its domestic defence requirements but also cater to needs of the world. International community is surprised over the achievements made by Pakistan in the defence field. DEPO is providing active support to our defence manufacturing / service sector and the export chain through facilitation, coordination and promotion for sustainable growth of defence export”.37
In the same context, the senior Vice President of LCCI, Almas Hyder opined that:
“Close linkage between Defence Export Promotion Organization and chambers of commerce will greatly help in engaging private sector in defence production. Unlike other countries, Pakistan modifies its approach and involve private sector in defense production. The defence-growth nexus can lead us to attain better economic growth rate and help increase the exports of the country”.38
INTERNATIONAL DEFENCE EXHIBITION AND SEMINAR (IDEAS): ACCELERATING DEFENCE EXPORT
DEPO, along with its key manufacturing firms, had been participating in several international defence exhibitions and seminars to market its products. This was a pro-active strategy to find intended buyers and thus subsequently exporting the products which the DEPO and its affiliated firms had been manufacturing. The quality and durability of Pakistan’s defence products have earned it an international reputation and appreciation. The growing sales of military equipment and hardware led to the launching of a regular feature for displaying and finding buyers for the exports. In this regard, Pakistan Defence Industry started holding biannual exhibition under the auspices of the IDEAS and the first such exhibition was held in 2000. With the passage of time, IDEAS has emerged as an attractive event for the international buyers of defensive equipment under the slogan of ‘arms for peace’. The purpose of IDEAS reveals Pakistan’s aspiration to become a key player in promoting stability and not only within the region but also at the global level. IDEAS reiterate that through exports of cost-effective defensive equipment not only facilitates nations to maintain peace by equipping their armed forces, but also helps to achieve a minimum degree of deterrence against external threats through an affordable means.39
IDEAS also provides an interactive podium for the international defence manufacturing industries to showcase their advance technologies and innovations and enhance cooperation between countries from all parts of the world to share the common global cause of peace, notably against terrorism. It has become amongst the best interactive platform for the defence forces to choose between some of the finest available defense products and technologies, suiting their peculiar defensive needs. IDEAS also bring together international manufacturers and contractors to explore the prospects of collaboration in the field of defence production via joint ventures and outsourcing. IDEAS also provides an opportunity to organize and arrange meetings, confe-rences and networking sessions with policymakers, diplomats, defence manufacturers / contractors, high profile delegates and weapons procurement experts.40
For last few decades, Pakistan’s defence exports have seen a tremendous boost through the platform of IDEAS. Countries from South East Asia, Africa, South America and Middle East have shown their interest in buying defense related equipment and technologies from Pakistan.
The 10th edition of IDEAS was held from 27-30 November 2018 at Karachi Expo Centre. IDEAS-2018 attained new heights because of large number of exhibitors and delegates from even technologically advanced countries including China, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Jordan, Turkey, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Germany, Ukraine, USA and UAE. A total of 522 exhibitors from almost 50 states showcased their defence products and over 262 high-level delegations visited the exhibition from almost 51 countries. At present the defence export of Pakistan stands at $300 million and the exporting trends show that Pakistan defence exports will grow further in coming years.41
The proficiency in manufacturing modern defence equipment and technology remains the hallmark of any nation’s advancement and progress. Pakistan, which was initially at a very disadvantageous position due to non-existent military production infrastructure after independence. However, moving towards self-reliance, Pakistan has covered great distance in modernizing its defence industry, which is not only meeting its domestic needs but also contributing to the economy through exports. Pakistan’s arms industry has minimized its dependence on importing military hardware from foreign states and has increased the reliance on the locally manufactured defence equipment, especially in the field of small and medium weapons. To compete in the international market Pakistan is gradually making its space in the market which is primarily dominated by China, Russia and the US. That is why Pakistan’s defence industry has been recognized internationally. Government’s encouragement for joint collaboration and joint ventures with advanced states would not only help Pakistan in reducing dependence on importing the equipment but would also enable production of high quality military hardware at a competitive price. The rapid industrialization of the defence industry and growing potentials in defence export has enabled Pakistan to stand out in the region as a major exporter of defensive equipment and military hardware in Asia.
Alvi, Hamza. “Pakistan-US Military Alliance.” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 25 (1998): 1551-1557.
Anwar, Muhammad Fiaz. “US Sanctions against Pakistan: Rationale and Impact (1990-2001).” Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2013): 22-45.
Anthony, Ian. “Introduction,” in The Future of the Defence Industries in Central and Eastern Europe, ed. Ian Anthony, United States: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Butt, Asif Majeed. “Defence Industry: The Options for Pakistan.” NDU Journal, 2012. https://www.ndu.-edu.pk/issra/issra_pub/articles/ndu-journal/NDU-Journal-2012/01-Defence-Industry.pdf
Dilawar, Ismail. “Pakistan Looks to Aviation in Ambitious Defense Export Push.” Bloomberg, March 2, 2017. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-03-02/pakistan-looks-to-aviation-in-ambitious-defense-export-push
Gady, Franz-Stefan. “Pakistan to Sell 52 Military Aircraft to Turkey”, The Diplomat, May 12, 2017. https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/pakistan-to-sell-52-military-aircraft-to-turkey/
Gady, Franz-Stefan. “Pakistan Moves Ahead with Sale of 3 JF-17 Fighter Jets to Nigeria.” The Diplomat, October 26, 2018. https://thediplomat.com/2018/10/pakistan-moves-ahead-with-sale-of-3-jf-17-fighter-jets-to-nigeria/
Ganguly, Sumit. Conflict Unending: India-Pakistan Tensions since 1947. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
Grillot, Suzette R. “The Defence Trade,” in Contemporary Security Studies ed. Alan Collins, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Grimmett, Richard F. “Conventional Arms Transfers in the Post-Cold War Era.” CRS Report for Congress, September 28, 1993. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/transfers-pcw.pdf
Hooke, Richard. “The Defence Industry in the 21st Century: Thinking Global or Thinking American.” Pricewaterhousecoopers (PWC), 2005. https://www.pwc.pl/en/publikacje/ defence_industry_ads.pdf
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Walsh, David M. The Military Balance in the Cold War: US Perceptions and Policy, 1967-85. New York: Routledge, 2008.
Saddaf Sultaana is pursuing PhD in Strategic Studies from National Defence University, Islamabad. She had been a visiting scholar at the University of Leicester, UK, where she worked with Dr. Andrew Futter. She had also been affiliated with an Islamabad based think-tank, as a Senior Research Associate from 2015-2018.
1 Asif Majeed Butt, “Defence Industry: The Options for Pakistan”, NDU Journal, (2012): 3. https://www.ndu. edu.pk/issra/issra_pub/articles/ndu-journal/NDU-Journal-2012/01-Defence-Industry.pdf
2 Shazia Hasan, “50 countries taking part in IDEAS 2018”, DAWN, November 25, 2018. https://epaper.dawn. com/DetailNews.php?StoryText=25_11_2018_116_002
3 Richard Hooke, “The Defence Industry in the 21st Century: Thinking Global or Thinking American,” Pricewater housecoopers (PWC), 2005, 5. https://www.pwc.pl/en/publikacje/defence_industry_ads.pdf
4 David M. Walsh, The Military Balance in the Cold War: US Perceptions and Policy, 1967-85 (New York: Routledge, 2008), 200.
5 Suzette R. Grillot, “The Defence Trade,” in Contemporary Security Studies ed. Alan Collins (United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2013), 323.
6 Richard F. Grimmett, “Conventional Arms Transfers in the Post-Cold War Era”, CRS Report for Congress, September 28, 1993. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/transfers-pcw.pdf
7 Suzette R. Grillot, “The Defence Trade,” 323.
8 Defence Export and Promotion Organization (DEPO), Introduction, undated, http://depo.gov.pk/about.php.
9 For details see Sumit Ganguly, Conflict Unending: India-Pakistan Tensions Since 1947 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002).
10 DEPO, “Pakistan Defence Industries”, undated, http://depo.gov.pk/defence.php?page=08.
11 Hamza Alvi, “Pakistan-US Military Alliance”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 25 (1998): 1551.
12 For details see Muhammad Fiaz Anwar, “US Sanctions against Pakistan: Rationale and Impact (1990-2001)”, Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2013): 22-45.
15 “Gulf countries import half of Pakistan Ordnance Factories arms supplies”, Al-Arabiya, February 28, 2017. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/features/2017/02/28/Gulf-countries-import-half-of-Pakistan-Ordnance-Factories-arms-supplies.html
16 Bilal Khan, “Pakistan Sees Defence Export Growth in 2016-2017”, Quwa Defence News and Analysis Group, June 22, 2017. https://quwa.org/2017/06/22/pakistan-sees-defence-export-growth-2016-2017/
17 Franz-Stefan Gady, “Pakistan Moves Ahead with Sale of 3 JF-17 Fighter Jets to Nigeria”, The Diplomat, October 26, 2018, https://thediplomat.com/2018/10/pakistan-moves-ahead-with-sale-of-3-jf-17-fighter-jets-to-nigeria/
18 Mateen Haider, “Saudi Arabia Largest Importer of Pakistani Arms”, Dawn, May 6, 2016. https://www. dawn.com/news/1256712
19 “Pakistan Ordnance Factories Sign Four LoUs for Export, Tech Transfer of Weapons with Global Firms”, DefenseWorld.net, November 24, 2016. https://www.defenseworld.net/news/17767/Pakistan_Ordnance_ Factories_ Sign_Four_LoUs_For_Export__Tech_Transfer_Of_Weapons_With_Global_Firms#.XTNfqjK95rc
20 Ismail Dilawar, “Pakistan Looks to Aviation in Ambitious Defense Export Push”, Bloomberg, March 2, 2017. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-03-02/pakistan-looks-to-aviation-in-ambitious-defense-export-push
22 “50 Al-Zarar Tanks to be Exported this Year”, DAWN, January 15, 2003. https://www.dawn.com/news/77650
23 “Pakistan to export six lighted armored vehicles to Bahrain”, DAWN, May 29, 2018. https://www.dawn. com/news/1410620
24 Pakistan Aeronautical Complex Kamra, “Complex”, undated, https://www.pac.org.pk/complex.
25 Pakistan Aeronautical Complex Kamra, “Quality Certification”, undated, https://www.pac.org.pk/certifications.
26 DEPO Catalogue, http://depo.gov.pk/download/catalogue/public/PAC.pdf
27 “PAC Kamra-built 80 Mushaq Aircraft Exported in Five Years”, Business Recorder, January 18, 2019. https://fp.brecorder.com/2019/01/20190118440511/
28 Franz-Stefan Gady, “Pakistan to Sell 52 Military Aircraft to Turkey”, The Diplomat, May 12, 2017 https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/pakistan-to-sell-52-military-aircraft-to-turkey/
29 Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Limited, “Completed Projects,” undated, http://www.karachiship yard.com.pk/category/projects/.
30 http://depo.gov.pk/download/catalogue/public/KSEW.pdf and SM Suleman, “Pakistan poised to be a leading shipbuilding country in region”, Daily Times, November 24, 2018. https://dailytimes.com.pk/325344/ pakistan-poised-to-be-a-leading-shipbuilding-country-in-region/
31 Usman Ansari, “Pakistan inks naval shipbuilding, technology transfer deal with Turkey”, Defense News, July 5, 2018. https://www.defensenews.com/naval/2018/07/05/pakistan-inks-naval-shipbuilding-technology-transfer-deal-with-turkey/
32 For details see https://www.karachishipyard.com.pk/ongoing-projects/
33 For details see, http://depo.gov.pk/
34 An aerospace standard of latest revision or AS9100 is a widely adopted and standardized quality management system for aerospace industry adding requirements relating to quality and safety.
35 Usman Ansari, Pakistan Continues Arms Export Efforts”, Defense News, October 6, 2015. https://www. defensenews.com/global/asia-pacific/2015/10/06/pakistan-continues-arms-export-efforts/
37 “Defence Production Industry makes Innovative Advancement”, The News International, February 2, 2016. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/95347-Defence-production-industry-makes-innovative-advancement
41 “Tenth International Defence Exhibition Begins in Karachi”, The News International, November 27, 2018. https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/398985-ten-international-defence-exhibition-begins-today-in-karachi and “Post Show Report”, International Defence Exhibition & Seminar http://ideaspakistan.gov.pk/download/ psr/Post_Show_Report.pdf