Abstract. The article is dedicated to fake news in the Polish media sphere in reference to the Ukrainian national minority. The theme of the hybrid warfare in building the antagonisms and nationalist tensions between Poland and Ukraine was analyzed, its impact on the functioning of the Ukrainian minority in Poland and the role of falsified information in the context of historical and social relations of both nations, as a tool of foreign influence on the attempt to destabilize international relations.
The subject of fake news is a relatively new phenomenon, over which defining attempts are made. The subject of falsification of infor-mation possessed and its specific distribution in recent times is one of the most important problems of the modern society and the media sphere. Both in the public and scientific debate, this phenomenon and the danger it brings is noticed. Fake news is associated mainly with the online media and social media, although it also happens to appear on the television and radio stations.
The development took place along with the mediatization of society, the Internet gave everyone analogous rights to journalism and broadcasting messages, cross-media and dissemination of information in social media, where everyone can be both the recipient and the sender of the message, led to the publication of unproven information, unpro-fessional broadcasting of messages or the very approach to its editing. Lack of barriers in the flow of information, the hunger of the message and constant attempts to exist in the dynamically shaped noise of truth and falseness are a fertile ground for fake news. Where emotions, expectations and interests are mixed, there will always be space for manipulation. In a country that belonged to the group of Eastern bloc countries and where communist propaganda was an everyday reality, the use of techniques of modulation of the society through the dissemi-nation of false information and falsification of reality is relatively simple, especially along with the development of the availability of virtual sources of information and the digitization and mediatization of the society. According to recent studies, up to 58% of Poles shows the online media and social media as the main source of information and knowledge about the world, this is one of the highest percentages in the world.
In the Polish media, the development of false messages has been noticeable for many years, with special references regarding historical narration in the media and historical policy towards the Ukrainian minority living in this country. A public discussion was repeatedly held about the role of false messages in building antagonisms between Polish citizens of Polish and Ukrainian nationality and fueling mutual hatred. This problem has been growing along with the development of social media for several years, if the information published by a specific editorial office or TV station is easy to verify, but it is virtually impossible to verify the accuracy of information from so-called ordinary citizens.
Fake news about the Ukrainian minority in Poland focuses mainly on the aspects of propaganda, false historical narrative, hate speech and trolling. Many think that propaganda is a feature of bad and totalitarian regimes, but nothing is more wrong. In modern terminology, the word “propaganda” also includes the importance of proposition and influence through the manipulation of symbols and the use of psychological mechanisms of individuals. The current form of propaganda in the matter of fake news is based mainly on the game on the feelings of individuals and the falsification of the history of both nations, which share a common thousand-year history. Contemporary propaganda in Poland is not only based on convincing to your own reasons and the magnificence of their ideas, but on discouraging and disgusting their opponent, regardless of whether it is a political, social, ethnic, historical or religious issue. According to Robert Rajczyk, in the systems of semi-open and open propaganda, organized conviction first of all plays the role of a narrator and representative of the narrative, and the issue of historical narrative, in particular concerning Polish-Ukrainian relations in the understanding of both inter-state and ethnic relations in relation to a common stormy and full of ups and downs of history, is a sensitive issue, and the most often falsified for political and religious purposes.
The tools used by the fake news writers in addition to all aspects of propaganda are also new phenomenon like hate speech and trolling. For several years there has been a debate in the European Union on their definition, the phenomenon itself and the prevention of hate speech. Hateful language appears in the public debate, political narrative, traditional and Internet press as well as in the mainstream media like the television and radio.
“If we want to change the atmosphere of public debate, we must create an atmosphere of brotherhood and solidarity.” In the organs of the European Union, the debate on hate speech and racism associated with it lasted a year, but recently we realize the enormous power resulting mainly from negative comments and hatred in the mass information resources. Several areas of activity in this field were formulated, but it should be understood that it can be used as a source of illegal and harmful activities. It was stated that the role of states in counteracting this phenomenon should be defined and the boundaries of freedom of expression should be defined, but with respect for personal freedom and freedom of speech. Hate speech and fake news in Poland are focused on two pillars: television and the Internet, in the first case it usually concerns the political sphere, in the second it focuses on hatred for individual persons, ethnic groups, nationalities and religions. In the last four years, hate speech on the Polish Internet has become a literal scourge and dominated all types of forums, social media and discourses in their electronic edition. Patrycja Chrzanowska defines hate speech as a reference to negative, vulgar and aggressive comments on the Internet. This is the essence of most modern Polish media. Mirosław Karwat defines it as all codes and signs that are an expression and at the same time an instrument for spreading hatred. The language of hate, which is a hate speech instrument in the fake news concept, has been well defined by the Council of Europe: any form of expression that disseminates, incites, promotes or justifies racial hatred, xenophobia or other forms of hatred based on intolerance, including the form of aggressive nationalism or ethnicity to discriminate against minorities. Kamil Durajczyk says one perceives a certain manipulation in hating, which consists in exaggerating the negative qualities of the other side, all the above-mentioned tools and relationships are connected with you, hate speech and eager on the services of the creators of fake news are the main feature of this message in the Polish mainstream media, very often enriched with vulgar language in order to stop speech to stimulate more negative reactions. Trolling – does not have the same genesis and intentions, but uses the same means. Rather, it is a tool for propaganda and policy making through the act of exerting influence on society through hateful language.
Political discourse is becoming more and more harsh, and in political speech one can notice an increase of hatred at all levels. Although the number of racist remarks has increased, especially with regard to the weaker groups in Europe, the level of tolerance for such language in the public sphere has also increased. Parliamentary elections are usually an opportunity to highlight important topics about public behavior and creating land for spreading hatred. Unfortunately, the widespread public perception of offensive comments and statements has become acceptable. The growing wave of hatred stimulates more and more aggressive behavior. In the case of Poland, members of the right-wing political parties and some priests of the Roman Catholic Church are the largest group of authors of statements of this figure. The easiest goal is the concept of “enemy”: if you can not find an external one, a good solution is to create an internal problem, based on hatred of a mythical internal enemy in the form of national, religious, ethnic minority, etc. The same ethnicity in Poland was reborn after the political transformation, dr. Iwona Leonowicz-Bukała notices that the ethical discourse in the media is becoming more and more visible in the public debate and research, Poles and minorities living in Poland since 1990, in a sense, are again learning ethnic and national identifications. It is a process of delusion and difficult in particular in the case of the Ukrainian national minority which immediately after the Second World War suffered the most repressions in the form of deportations to the western lands of Poland as part of the “Operation Vistula” and repatriation to the USSR, also the delegalization of the Greek Catholic Church or forced conversions. Everything in the cloud of violence, discrimination and chauvinism, officially under repercussions for the events in Volhynia; in February 27, 2007 Polish President Lech Kaczyński and Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko in a joint statement condemned the “Operation Vistula”, and stated that it was contrary to the fundamental human rights. Repression largely affected the Ukrainian highlanders, Lemkos and Boykos who had nothing to do with these events, and made purges against Carpathian Ruthenian inhabitants of the Carpathians.
FAKE NEWS IN POLISH MASS MEDIA
RELATIVE TO UKRAINIAN MINORITY
In the mainstream media, the authors of fake news are mostly right-wing publicists and clergymen who deliberately publish falsified information, often politicians who rely on their relationships on social networks such as Tweeter, Facebook, popular in Poland wykop.pl and on discussion forums under articles and even in the form of memes. One of the main faces of hate speech and fake news is the Polish-Armenian priest Tadeusz Isakowicz-Zaleski who is famous for his hatred towards all followers of Eastern Christianity and obsessive hatred of Ukrainians (Lemkos, Boykos, Rusnacs). Isakowicz-Zaleski suggested on his Facebook and Tweeter account that Bogdan Borusewicz, the Speaker of the Seym, and Adam Bodnar, Ombudsman, shouted Bander’s slogans and “Deaths to Enemies” in Hruszowice. Both denied this information, they were only participants in the ceremonial celebrations of the 70th anniversary of the “Operation Vistula” in Przemyśl, in their statement there were accusations of classic fake news or at least falsification of information. This is not the only false entry of the priest – journalist. Another time, he also published in the social media an entry full of indignation on the question of the matriculation examination in the subject: Knowledge about Society, where students were to indicate what human rights and freedoms were violated during the “Operation Vistula”. However, the journalist posted on Twitter and Facebook accounts an entry in which he called the scandalous task and wonders who puts such questions at the high school exam. “Adam Bodnar or the head of the IPN in Kiev? Or maybe someone from Michnik?” – the publicist asked. He also shared his reaction in one of the nationwide Polish information portal Wirtualna Polska. These are not the only provocations by the journalist’s priest, he is known in his audience for the vulgar, negative anti-Ukrainian descrip-tions in Poland and Polish-Ukrainian relations, often falsifying both the information itself and the historical subject that deals professionally as a journalist. This is an example of staged hatred containing both the hate speech element and deliberate disinformation of the society. He was suspected of acting for third parties, deliberate detrimental operation on the Warsaw – Kiev line, and also as a person who is looking for someone who is interested in him like a celebrity. However, his motives for action and intentions can not be determined.
Tabloids to increase sales and attract the desired sensations recipients have always falsified information, publishing unverified infor-mation, seeking cheap sensations have repeatedly used false (invented information), often also in the form of a catchy and not having much in common with the article content leads. This was the case of the Super Nowości, where the title itself was Przemyśl i Sanok zajęte przez Ukrainę!, it suggested the annexes of Polish border territories through its eastern neighbor, it had nothing to do with real events because in the article we learn that it is about board game, this is the type of information which the most of the recipients often do not read deeply into the content, will interpret unambiguously.
The websites of unidentified origin on which information appears allegedly unmasking the network of Ukrainian nationalists in the con-temporary state structures and regional authorities in eastern Poland is another example of targeted policy of disinformation through fabricated information about the origin of individual officials, judges, police officers and even social activists and their links with fascist Ukrainian organizations or their ancestors. In this case, there are ready-made answers to previously formulated conspiracy theories that aim to sow public anxiety. These materials are often reproduced by ordinary Internet users as well as by journalists and politicians for political purposes.
Comments on forums, under articles and memes are the biggest source of falsified information and its aggressive and vulgar variety. It is precisely on this place into the Polish Internet that a real war is going on, both ideological and informational, both internal and external. On the discussion forum of the national magazine Gazeta Wyborcza under the question How many Ukrainians live in Sanok? answers appear like: hansgrubber write: “Wcale sie nie dziwie ze nie warto przyznawac sie do wspolnoty narodowej z ludobojcami z Wolynia” (I am not surprised at all that it is not worth admitting nationality with genocide from Volyhnia) or ir.pl “Ci ukraincy, co zostali po wojnie w POlsce, mieli zakazane jechać do USSR, bo ich guru bandera zabronił. mieli oni aktywowac siatke zbrodnicza na naszych terenach” (Those Ukrainians who were left after the war in Poland were forbidden to go to the USSR, because their guru Bandera forbade, they were supposed to activate criminal networks in our territo-ries) of course, with linguistic and grammar errors. In most comments we can find such terms as “Pogrobowcy bandery”, “Spadkobiercy bandery”, “Koń trojański polski” or calling for punishable offenses like: Cement them and put in to Vistula and Odra. Even under the article concerning the separateness of Lemkos from the Ukrainian’s nation, as a result of dividing this group into two factions, in the right-wing newspaper Kresy 24.pl where Lemkos are refusing from the act on the OUN / UPA, appear accusations of their crimes, presenting them as an anti-Polish element, hostile to this nation. Unfortunately, it is worth noting that the words of A. Duchnowycz known from the pro-Russian sympathies, one of the authors of Lemko’s rusophilia idea from the 19th and 20th century, are quoted as scientific and historical sources.
THIRD FORCE, PAID TROLLING, HYBRID WARFARE
The specificity of the information war in Poland is the fact that it mainly takes place on the Internet, in all its areas starting from the mainstream information portals, social media (Twitter, Facebook), Internet forums, comments under articles, memes. The modern information war uses information as a propaganda weapon. Disinformation used by it is a form of psychological influence, it is not only a form of psychological war, but the arsenal of its means also includes sabotage, the aim of which is to destabilize. The information and psychological war aims at influencing or deliberate control over social groups. It is mainly about the situation, in fact the main goal of information is the collapse of society and the ideological distribution of society, perceived as a confusion of public opinion. The public debate has recently been dominated by reports of a hybrid, information, cybernetic warfare or fake news that have a detrimental effect on both the society and the security of the state. The head of the Sejm Special Services Commission Marek Opioła said that we can say that the third party affects Polish-Ukrainian relations, unfortunately he also pointed to the speed of information and the power of the media is enormous. Therefore, all kinds of things that appear many times in the media may emanate from special services, that it can be inspired. Journalist Paweł Bobolowicz notes that “Fake news” is a tool commonly used by Russians in the infor-mation campaign, propaganda and ordinary lies. ABW press spokesman Stanisław Żaryn informed about the arrest of Russian scientist Dimitry K. who was the organizer and inspector of activities aimed at the security of Poland, similarly to reports from recent months about the arrest of a Russian citizen Jekaterina C. She was supposed to be a organizer and coordinator of anti-Ukrainian activities in Poland. In fact, the number of hateful and false comments that had their apogee in 2016-2017 decreased after these events. In articles not related to the problems of the Polish Ukrainian, virtually all these types of entries have disappeared, which may indicate a paid trolling used as one of the tools of the information war. The content-containing entries raised doubts about the authenticity of the comments and accounts on the portals Jak świat światem Ukrainiec nie jest mi bratem into Polish Internet sources, and analogous content on Ukrainian portals Як світ світом Поляк не для мене братом. Published at the same time, always formulated the same, large font, only the object of hatred changed, where there was a probability of copying or automatic generating by false accounts and trolls, who published antagonistic content interfering in the political relations of both countries. Szwed formulates a position in the report about fake news and automatic control of fake accounts, he studied hand-coded 3,671 articles on the annexation of Crimea or the war in eastern Ukraine posted on a variety of Russian-, Lithuanian-, Latvian-, Estonian-, and Polish-language Internet portals, as well as all of the comments on those articles. The study found that trolls’ comments on an article tended to be associated with an increase in the comments posted by nontroll users, possibly “just because they initiated certain discussion threads.”. The same applies to all Ukrainian topics in Polish online resources. On the other end, we have large-scale activities initiated by our eastern neighbor, which the Center for Eastern Studies referred to as the Russian information warfare.
INTERNAL WAR AND SOCIAL CONTEXT
There is no lack of opinion, however, that some of the activities, in addition to the Russian paid trolling and information war carried out in most Central and Eastern European countries, also have a second side. Witold Jurasz told in interview: I also feel that the Polish expert community has focused on fake news. Of course, they played a role in discouraging Ukraine, but did it really matter? I have the impression that the subject of fake news has been picked up with us, some irrelevant environments have been addressed, because allegedly their existence is supposed to explain Polish failures in Eastern policy. I’m sorry, those failures have been going on for 27 years, before any fake news was made and before any extreme, open-minded pro-Russian circles in Poland began to function. Analyzing the social and political situation in the country, it is impossible to disagree with this statement, especially in the dimension of extremely nationalistic circles in Poland. This group is very susceptible to demagogy and populism. To justify their failure in their personal life, they need an enemy, ideally an inner one who is close. Due to the lack or low education from the sympathizers and activists of these groups, the false information hits the fertile ground, community that works under the influence of emotions, does not check the information, only the negative message and vulgar messages will get to them. In the USSR, the phrase “useful idiots” has been formulated on which a number of general political, commercial and marketing activities are operative. Surprisingly, in a few thousand years the human mentality has not changed, only the technology and methods of persuasion have changed. Like technological development, which aimed at combating disinformation and propaganda, and achieved the opposite effect to the intended one, a new society of “dark masses” that is easy to manage. Marcin Szewczyk: In the context of Polish reality, the media are not without fault, both publishers and journalists have been involved in a political war that has been going on for fifteen years in Poland. They themselves use the media for political purposes and their benefits under the guise of objectivity. However, there is also a no lack of information about the alleged action of other forces not only of Russia, but also of the United States and England. In many cases, especially the Internet, it is impossible to determine the authors of the publication, for one can only presume the blame of one or another state. However, these are only speculations on which official research can not be based.
The effect of the information war and effective disinformation are deplorable in real life, which long ago went beyond the limits of hate speech, trolling or plain lies on the Internet. The result of such action is the destruction of monuments, memorial sites, cemeteries, open cultivation and the making of fascist postulates and also punishable acts violating the basic personal rights of the other unit. In Przemyśl many times there were physical and verbal attacks on representatives of the Ukrainian community. Similar situations occurred in cemeteries of ethnic and national minorities, and even against scientific workers.
Fake news in the form of information warfare in relation to the Ukrainian minority in Poland gathers its harvest. Purposeful disinformation intensifies social and geopolitical antagonisms in inter-state relations between Poland and Ukraine. Paid trolling and hate speech as the tools of this practice fuel hatred and anti social behavior, especially if they end up in the fertile ground of extreme right-wing activists who in all of this unconsciously play the role of a useful idiot, thoughtlessly pursuing the policy of foreign forces. It can be said that the responsibility for dissemi-nating false information lies with three sides: foreign forces, journalists who do not verify their sources or deliberately take part in a political war, and politicians themselves who want to build political capital on national animosities.
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* Master of Journalism and Social Communication, independent journalist
 Szewczyk M. Nauki o mediach i komunikacji społecznej: krystalizacja dyscypliny w Polsce: tradycje, nurty, problemy, rezultaty, Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA – Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki Zarzadzania, Warszawa – Rzeszów, 2017. S. 338-339.
 Fake News, Czyli Jak Kłamstwo Rządzi Światem, Raport Opracowany Przez Agencję Informacyjną Newseria Oraz Firmę Doradczą Public Relationsszapiro Business Advisory, Agencja Informacyjna Newseria, Wrzesień 2017. S. 3-7.
 Ibidem, S. 3.
 Pratkanis A. Aronson E. Wiek propagandy. Używanie i nadużywanie perswazji na co dzień, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa, 2013, s. 17.
 Rajczyk R. Nowoczesne Wojny Informacyjne, Difin, Warszawa, 2016, s. 62.
 Council of Europe (2015). The Conference of the No Hate Speech Movement Campaign Mobilising, Planning and Networking for Campaigning Effectively with Young People Against Hate Speech Online: European Youth Centre Strasbourg 2013. Pages. 32-33.
 Dynkowska J. Hejterstwo nowa praktyka kulturowa? Gezneza, przypadki, diagnozy, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź, 2017. S. 188.
 Ibidem, S. 19.
 Dynkowska J. Hejterstwo nowa praktyka kulturowa? Gezneza, przypadki, diagnozy, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź, 2017. S. 176.
 Ibidem, S. 19.
 Szewczyk M. Nauki o mediach i komunikacji społecznej: krystalizacja dyscypliny w Polsce: tradycje, nurty, problemy, rezultaty, Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA – Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki Zarzadzania, Warszawa – Rzeszów, 2017. S. 446 – 447.
 Orszulak T, Skandal w Hruszowicach. RPO wyjaśnia: to fake news w wykonaniu Tadeusza Isakowicza-Zaleskiego, Wp.pl, 5 Maj 2017, https://wiadomosci.wp.pl/ skandal-w-hruszowicach-rpo-wyjasnia-to-fake-news-w-wykonaniu-tadeusza-isakowicza-zaleskiego-6119298085398657a
 Rosiejka R, Isakowicz-Zaleski oburzony pytaniem na maturze. “Wierzyć się nie chce”, Wp.pl, 11 Maj 2017, https://wiadomosci.wp.pl/isakowicz-zaleski-oburzony-pytaniem-na-maturze-wierzyc-sie-nie-chce-6121481960871553a
 Kamińska M, Przemyśl i Sanok zajęte przez Ukrainę! Super Nowości, 9 Październik 2017, http://supernowosci24.pl/przemysl-i-sanok-zajete-przez-ukraine/
 LM, Ukraińcy RZĄDZĄ Na Rzeszowszczyźnie? NowyEkran, 4 Maj 2014, https:// nowyekran.wordpress.com/2014/05/08/kraincy-rzadza-na-rzeszowszczyznie/
 Ile ludzi narodowości ukraińskiej mieszka w Sanoku, Gazeta Wybrocza, 7 Lipiec 2015, http://forum.gazeta.pl/forum/w,460,65945111,65945111,Ile_ludzi_narodowosci_ukrainskiej_mieszka_w_Sanoku.html Sanoku
 Siewierska – Chmaj A. W pułapce wielokulturowości, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego – Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki Zarzadzania, Warszawa – Rzeszów, 2016, s. 118.
 „Rusinem byłem, jestem i będę”. Łemkowskie przesłanie do Polaków i Ukraińców, Kresy24.pl, 6 Maj 2017, https://kresy24.pl/rusinem-bylem-jestem-i-bede-lemkowskie-przeslanie-do-polakow-i-ukraincow/
 Rajczyk R. Nowoczesne Wojny Informacyjne. Difin, Warszawa, 2016. S. 90.
 Łaj, Szef sejmowej Komisji Służb Specjalnych: Możemy powiedzieć, że trzecia strona wpływa na stosunki polsko-ukraińskie, WNET.FM, 23 Marca 2018, http://w net.fm/2018/03/23/szef-sejmowej-komisji-sluzb-specjalnych-mozemy-powiedziec-ze-trzecia-strona-wplywa-na-stosunki-polski-ukrainskie/
 LK, „Fake newsy” są powszechnie używanym przez Rosjan narzędziem w walce informacyjnej, propagandzie i zwyczajnym kłamstwie, WNET.FM, 16 Maj 2017, http://wnet.fm/2017/05/16/fake-newsy-popularnym-narzedziem-rosjan-walki-walce-informacyjnej-propagandzie-zwyczajnym-klamstwie/
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